Infant’s Nutritional Requirements

A balanced diet is vital to ensure proper growth and development in children. Also, children belonging to different age groups have different nutritional requirements. For instance, a 5-year-old child’s nutritional requirement is different from an infant’s nutritional requirements. Usually, most parents are either confused or have little knowledge of the dietary requirements of their children.


Mentioned below are some tips to help parents fulfil the nutritional requirements of children aged 0–5 years.

Nutritional requirements for 0–6 months

Until babies are 4–5 months old, breastfeeding is the ideal way of providing nutrition. Not only does breast milk fulfill their nutritional requirement but also boosts their immunity. Any transition to other sources of nutrition should begin only after a baby is 6 months old.


Nutritional requirements for 6–12 months

Although babies can be breastfed until they are 12 months old, breast milk can be supplemented with pure fruit juices by the time they are 6 months old. Also, it is better to feed a 6-month-old baby from a cup instead of a bottle.

Nutritional requirements for 1–5-year-old children

  • While offering food to children, parents should consider its overall nutritional value rather than focus on any one nutrient.
  • Children under 3 years of age require foods that are rich in fat. They need at least 27 g of fat every day
  • Consider a variety of foods to fulfil the body requirement of carbohydrates, proteins and other nutrients
  • Ensure that the diet provides the optimum number of calories needed for proper growth and development.
  • Encourage children to engage in at least 40–60 minutes of vigorous physical activities like jumping, dancing and running.

Importance of Educational Games in Pre-School

Educational games are games explicitly designed for educational purposes, or which have incidental or secondary educational value. All types of games may be used in an Educational environment also Educational games are games that are designed to help children to learn about certain subjects, expand concepts, reinforce development, understand a historical event or culture, or assist them in learning a skill as they play.

Games involve interactive play that teaches children rules, adaptation, problem solving and interaction. They satisfy a fundamental need to learn by providing enjoyment, motivation, creativity, social interaction and emotion while the learning takes place.

Oftentimes parents or caregivers are under the impression that if a child is not actively learning or being taught academics then they are not learning at all. But even simple playtime is learning for a child. The world is new to them and something as simple as playing with a cardboard box is still a learning process for them.

Playtime is also a learning process for Socialization Skills. When children play with others they learn how to socialize and what is acceptable or not acceptable. They learn to share, to communicate, and often set up their own rules or etiquette for what is acceptable. Playtime that is shared with peers is also a great way for children to practice good manners.

Imagination and creativity can also be strengthened through organized play in preschool. Arts, crafts, and dramatic play sessions are ways to encourage and support open-ended creative expression. Simply children handling a blank piece of paper and a few crayons or setting the stage for some pretend play scenarios can be inspiring. By supplying the necessary tools and making suggestions for opportunities to expand their imaginations will help young learners to develop a sense of independence, self-confidence, and feelings of accomplishment.



What is Play-based learning?

Children are naturally motivated to play. A play-based program builds on this motivation, using play as a context for learning. In this context, children can explore, experiment, discover and solve problems in imaginative and playful ways.

A Play-based approach involves both child-initiated and teacher-supported learning. The teacher encourages children’s learning through interactions that aim to stretch their thinking to higher levels.

For example, while children are playing with blocks, a teacher can pose questions that encourage problem solving and prediction. The teacher can also bring the child’s awareness towards Mathematics, Science and Literacy concepts, allowing them to engage with such concepts through hands-on learning.

So overall Educational games focus on the below-mentioned aspects

  • Enhance Motor Skills
  • Encourage Social Development
  • Improve Concentration
  • Helping with their Self-Esteem
  • Keeping them active
  • Stimulating their Creativity

Importance of Creative Play

Creative play is a vital part of childhood and child development. Through creative and imaginative play children can grow Emotionally, Socially, Intellectually and even Physically. Creative experiences help a child develop these skills and enable them to share their thoughts, feelings and ideas. Playing creatively doesn’t have to be stressful or take a lot of time. Instead should be planned in a playful way and should also have some educational value. Every small step toward developing a child’s skills is a major milestone in their growth and happiness.


It’s good to show the child that there’s more than one way to do something. For example, there’s more than one way to draw a person, build a sandcastle or play a drum. This helps children to know that they can develop their own ideas.

We don’t need to give children new or expensive play materials. Homemade recycled and natural materials are all low-cost ways to stimulate play and imagination.


Ideas for creative and imaginative play are available all around us. Below mentioned are some of the household items to make games, tell stories or just have fun with them.


  • Sponges
  • Paper
  • Cardboard and boxes
  • Tape
  • Paint
  • Markers, crayons and pencils
  • Moulding materials like clay

Identify children with Learning Disability


A learning disability is a neurological disorder. Children with learning disabilities are as smart as or smarter than their peers. But they may have difficulty in Reading, Writing, Spelling, Reasoning, Recalling and Organizing information.

Teachers can help children with learning disabilities achieve success by encouraging their strengths, knowing their weaknesses, understanding the Educational system, working with professionals and learning about strategies to deal with specific difficulties.


Common learning disabilities in children are as follows

Dyslexia – a language-based disability in which a child has trouble understanding written words. It may also be referred to as a reading disability or reading disorder.

Dyscalculia – a mathematical disability in which a person has difficult time-solving arithmetic problems and grasping math concepts.

Dysgraphia – a writing disability in which a person finds it hard to form letters or write within a defined space.

Auditory and Visual Processing Disorders – sensory disabilities in which a person has difficulty understanding language despite normal hearing and vision.

Nonverbal Learning Disabilities – children with Non-Verbal Learning Disability have trouble interpreting nonverbal cues like facial expressions or body language and may have poor coordination.


The most frequently displayed symptoms are as follows

  • Short attention span
  • Poor memory
  • Difficulty following directions
  • Inability to discriminate between letters, numerals or sounds
  • Poor reading and/or writing ability,
  • Eye-hand coordination problems
  • Difficulties with sequencing and other sensory difficulties.


Other characteristics that may be present

  • Responds inappropriately in many instances,
  • Distractible, restless and impulsive
  • Says one thing, means another
  • Doesn’t adjust well to change
  • Difficulty listening and remembering
  • Difficulty telling time
  • Reverses letters
  • Places letters in an incorrect sequence
  • Difficulty understanding words or concepts
  • Delayed speech development


How to Help Children with Learning Disabilities Succeed in School


  • Teachers should develop a scoring guide, share it with children and provide models of examples of each level of performance.
  • Correct any miscommunication before the child begins the actual work. Check the work of children to ensure that they are doing the work correctly.
  • Step-by-step instructions should be explicitly stated by the teacher and modelled for the child.
  • Create models of quality work that children can see and analyze. Include both spoken and written explanations to fulfill Academic expectations.
  • Making the requirements a part of the classroom or homework routine will help the children meet expectations.

How to help your child deal with death in the family?

When a loved one dies, children feel and show their grief in different ways. How kids cope with the loss depends on things like their age, how close they felt to the person who died, and the support they receive.

It is an emotional moment for all the family members


Here are some things parents and teachers can do to help a child who has lost a loved one:


  • Answer a child’s questions, but keep your answers brief and simple.
  • Allow the child to grieve, but understand that for some children, real grief will be delayed.
  • Listen to what the child says and how he or she says it.
  • Don’t confuse young ones by using euphemisms for death such as rest or sleep.
  • Reassure the child that death is not a form of punishment but is a part of life.
  • Be patient and consistent with answers if a child asks the same questions over and over.
  • Help the child understand that the deceased is not going to “come back.”
  • Be careful about associating death with sickness because the child may become very fearful about his or her own sicknesses.
  • Be careful about saying that someone died because he or she was old. The child may become fearful of losing other “old” people. When possible, present a positive picture of ageing to your grandchild.

Listen and comfort: Every child reacts differently to learning that a loved one has died. Some kids cry. Some ask questions. Others seem not to react at all. That’s OK. Stay with your child to offer hugs or reassurance. Answer your child’s questions or just be together for a few minutes.


Talk about funerals and rituals: Allow children to join in rituals like viewings, funerals, or memorial services. Tell your child ahead of time what will happen. For example, “Lots of people who loved Grandma will be there. We will sing, pray, and talk about Grandma’s life. People might cry and hug. People will say things like, ‘I’m sorry for your loss,’ or, ‘My condolences.’ Those are polite and kind things to say to the family at a funeral. We can say, ‘Thank you,’ or, ‘Thanks for coming.’ You can stay near me and hold my hand if you want.”


Give your child a role: Having a small, active role can help kids master an unfamiliar and emotional situation such as a funeral or memorial service. For example, you might invite your child to read a poem, pick a song to be played, gather some photos to display, or make something. Let kids decide if they want to take part, and how.

Respond to emotions with comfort and reassurance: Notice if your child seems sad, worried, or upset in other ways. Ask about feelings and listen. Let your child know that it takes time to feel better after a loved one dies. Some kids may temporarily have trouble concentrating or sleeping, or have fears or worries. Counselling can help kids who need more support.

Help your child feel better. Provide comfort that your child needs, but don’t dwell on sad feelings. After a few minutes of talking and listening, shift to an activity or topic that helps your child feel a little better. Play, make art, cook, or go somewhere together.


Give your child time to heal from the loss: Grief is a process that happens over time. Be sure to have ongoing conversations to see how your child is feeling and doing. Healing doesn’t mean forgetting about the loved one. It means remembering the person with love and letting loving memories stir good feelings that support us as we go on to enjoy life.


As time goes by, concentrate on providing children with a stress-free environment. Active play, humorous games and hanging out with cousins may help. Unconditional love is the best soother of all.

How to handle a Hyperactive Child?

Here is how you spot hyperactivity in children

  • Hyperactive kids have difficulty in listening to or following directions.
  • They cannot sit back in their seats and move around a lot.
  • They talk too much or interrupt other people’s conversations.
  • Hyperactive kids fail to follow instructions or do a step-by-step routine.
  • They are impulsive, over-enthusiastic and bouncing with energy.
  • They can easily become worried, frustrated, angry and sad.


Here are some tricks and tips on how to handle a Hyperactive Child

  • Channelizing energy
  • Understand their feelings
  • Talking in a simple manner
  • Pair child with his / her friends
  • Use a stress ball
  • Minimize distractions
  • Identify strengths and weakness
  • Avoid fatigue
  • Give second chances
  • Encourage attention to detail


Games and activities for the kids to keep them motivated

  • Karate / Martial arts
  • Learning music
  • Doing theatre to enhance creativity
  • Swimming
  • Brain tickling games

How to get rid of nightmares in Children?

Nightmares or bad dreams are a type of dream that causes you to feel anxiety, fear or terror. Typically, a person will wake up during or just after having a nightmare and he or she will be able to remember all or part of the bad dream clearly. Sometimes, nightmares can be more than just a bad dream.

There can be a number of psychological triggers that cause nightmares in adults. For example, anxiety and depression can cause adult nightmares. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) also commonly causes people to experience chronic recurrent nightmares. Nightmares in adults can be caused by certain sleep disorders.

Try to eliminate bad dreams by:

  1. Setting a regular sleep schedule.
  2. Cutting out caffeine, cartoons, Digital Media (especially late in the day).
  3. Exercising during the day — but don’t work out right before going to bed.
  4. Relaxing before falling asleep.

Reading a storybook of Fairy Tales

If you’re looking for a peaceful night, here is the list of food you should avoid right before bed.

  • Ice Cream- A bowl of ice cream might be the most comforting bad-breakup bed accompaniment, but there’s a limit to its soothing properties.
  • Pasta
  • Pizza
  • Candy Bars
  • Cereal
  • Garlic
  • Dark Chocolate

How to strengthen your child’s immune system?

If your child is overly susceptible to illness, you may want to take steps to enhance his or her immune system and make it as strong as possible. 

The immune system fights disease-producing organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. All children are continuously exposed to these pathogens, but exposure does not mean a child will get sick.

 A strong immune system provides a child with powerful natural defences against disease. Conversely, a child with a weakened immune system is vulnerable or more susceptible to colds, flu, and more serious illnesses.

Good nutrition is essential to developing and keeping the immune system healthy and strong. 

  • Serve more fruits and vegetables
  • Avoid junk food
  • Boost sleep time
  • Exercise as a family
  • Breastfeed your baby
  • Maintain food hygiene
  • Cleanliness

How should a parent introduce a child to a Pre-school?

When children start going to preschool, as parents you may be approaching this major milestone with conflicting emotions, probably be excited about all the fun you hope your child will have and the new friends he’ll make. At the same time, you may feel a little sad that your child is venturing out into the big world without you. These emotions are normal. Your child is also bound to have a host of feelings about this transition, feeling proud to be a big kid but at the same time worried about being separated from you and starting something unfamiliar.


Key points

  • When your child is starting preschool, it’s normal for you and your child to have mixed feelings.
  • Talking to your child about preschool before he starts can help your child get used to the idea of going to preschool.

You can help your child settle into preschool by attending a few sessions together, having routines, and communicating with your child’s teacher.

Visit the preschool

Many preschools offer orientation visits. During these visits, the child can see and experience what he will do at preschool and what happens during the preschool day. With permission, you could take some photos of the preschool to show your child before he starts. Some preschools have a preparation or orientation book that you can take home with you.


How can I initiate a conversation with my child’s teacher?


  • Don’t wait to be called on by the teacher.
  • Parents shouldn’t hesitate to send a note and request an informal discussion as to how the child is performing through email, phone, or meeting personally
  • Parents also shouldn’t hesitate to ask for concrete suggestions on ways to help the child at home.

When communicating with the teacher the idea is to help them figure out the image of your child.

Tell the teacher what you know about your child’s interests, skills and history that will help to build a complete picture of who your child is at this moment.

  • Share all relevant information that can affect the child emotionally, mentally or physically.
  • Remember communicating isn’t only about telling teachers. It’s also about asking and listening. Let the teacher tell you about what he or she knows about your child and how the child is in the classroom.
  • You may get some ideas on how to encourage and extend that learning environment at home as well.

Helping Your Child to Have a Great First Day of Preschool

The first day of preschool has arrived, and it’s time for your child to begin an educational journey. How can you make this monumental first day a great one?

Get Ready to Say Goodbye on the First Day of Preschool

Saying goodbye to mom and dad, particularly if it’s the first time out of the house alone, can be difficult for many preschoolers. The key is to make sure you are ready for your child to go to preschool.

Managing the Tears

First, be prepared for some tears. It’s a scenario played out at preschools everywhere. A child, screaming, holding refusing to even look at the classroom, much less walk into it alone. Relax. It’s normal. Kids at this age thrive on familiarity, so when they are placed in a new situation, it’s common if they panic a little bit.

Getting Your Child Settled In

The great thing about the first day of preschool is that there are a whole bunch of parents in the room that are going through the same exact thing as you. If you work together as a team, it becomes that much easier and also much more fun.

Creative Play Activities for Pre-School Children

Creative play is a vital part of childhood and child development. Through creative play, children can grow Emotionally, Socially, Intellectually and even Physically. Creative experiences help a child develop these skills and enable them to share their thoughts, feelings and ideas.


Some of the benefits and skills a child will gain through Creative Play include:

  1. Intellectual Benefits- develop basic Math skills such as Measuring, Sorting etc.
  2. Physical Benefits- develop fine motor skills such as Painting, drawing, cutting and pasting.
  3. Emotional and Social Benefits- provide a positive outlet for children and help them to express their emotions also a safe and positive way for children to socialise with others.

Vegetable Prints

Material: Okra, Carrots, Potatoes, Onions etc.

Method: Cut the vegetables and dip in postal colours to make great designs. Children can also trace out a simple picture and ask the child to stamp and fill it.



Toddlers love everything that’s colourful and playful, and there’s nothing better than getting him engaged in a playful puppet act. Make paper-bag puppets and create a story that a child and his friends can enact. A child can also create some simple paper puppets himself to help him explore his artsy side.


Playdough Modelling

Playdough is a highly fun and creative activity to play with children.

Playdough activities are simple. Just provide some play dough to the child, and let him play. Soon the child will be seen making shapes of increasing complexity, it stimulates the brain and makes the child think hard. You can also add poke-ins, playdough mats or tell the child to make various letters if you want it to be more Educational.

Making Masks

Making masks can help kids truly think out of the box and use their imagination to great results.

Using a paper plate, scissors, construction plate and some glue, help the child to make the rough shape of the face and make a mask. The colouring can be done using crayons or watercolours.


Marble Painting

Marble paintings are fun to do and great to look at. Mix various colours with water and provide some paper and marbles to the child. The marbles are to be dipped in various colours and rolled over the paper so that patterns and shapes are formed. This activity can also be done using balls or water balloons.